Castles that the coolies of Deli built

All white society, chief personnel of Deli Maatschappij in 1889.
Villa Patumbah in Riesbach, Switzerland, built by coolies in Patumbak.
The real Villa Patumbak in Tanjung Morawa, North Sumatra.
NIOD building, ex-Nienhuys residence on Herengracht 380–382 in Amsterdam.
Nienhuys’ golden bath. From http://www.amsterdamsegrachtenhuizen.info/
Chinese coolies in a plantation (Van Batavia naar Atjeh, dwars door Sumatra, by F. Bernard).
A cartoon in De Amsterdammer. Van Kol (member of the socialist party) to Cremer: Excuse me, what
now? Cremer replied, Yes, we Deli men. . . . preferably keep quiet about that.
  • Villa Minareta, owned by PW Janssen was built in 1886 on the corner of Van Heutszlaan and Beatrixlaan. The villa served as a summer residence. Janssen named the Villa after his wife Folmina Margarethe Peters (1836–1919). Apparently he did not like the villa, and in 1890 he bought villa Canton (below).
  • Villa Kesawan (located next to Villa Minareta), the mansion of Cornelis van den Honert (1854-1916) built in 1892. Van Honert was the Deli Company’s principal administrator.
  • Javalaan 11. The villa was built in 1908 designed by architect J.C. van Epen. The house was owned Jan Willem Stous Sloot (1864–1936) who worked in the rubber plantations of the Deli Company in Langkat and Padang and Bedagai.
  • Villa Mea Vota, owned by Jacob Adrianus Cornelis van Leeuwen (1831–1898) founder of the Amsterdam-Deli Company.
Pakhuizen Medan, Bindjeij en Laboean
Pakhuizen Serdang, Langkat en Deli in Amsterdam.
Deli Batavia Maatschappij building in 1925.

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